For her daughter, see Sophia Charlotte of Hanover. For her grand-daughter, see Sophia Dorothea of Hanover.

Sophia of Hanover
Reign 18 December 1679 – 23 January 1698
Born 14 October 1630(1630-10-14)
The Hague, Netherlands
Died 8 June 1714 (aged 83)
Herrenhausen, Hanover
Burial 9 June 1714(1714-06-09)
Leine Castle, Hanover
George I, King of Great Britain
Prince Frederick Augustus
Prince Maximilian William
Sophia Charlotte, Queen in Prussia
Prince Charles Philip
Prince Christian Henry
Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of York and Albany
Full name Sophia of the Palatinate
Royal House Palatinate-Simmern
Father Frederick V, Elector Palatine
Mother Elizabeth Stuart

Sophia of Hanover (born Sophia of the Palatinate; 14 October 1630 – 8 June 1714) was the Electress of Hanover from 1692 to 1698. As a granddaughter of James VI and I, she became heir presumptive to the crowns of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland under the Act of Settlement 1701. After the Acts of Union 1707, she became heir presumptive to the unified throne of the Kingdom of Great Britain. She died less than two months before she would have become queen succeeding her first cousin once removed, Queen Anne, and her claim to the throne passed on to her eldest son, George Louis, Elector of Hanover, who ascended as George I on 1 August 1714 (Old Style).

Born to Frederick V of the Palatinate, a member of the House of Wittelsbach, and Elizabeth Stuart, in 1630, Sophia grew up in the Dutch Republic, where her family had sought refuge after the sequestration of their Electorate during the Thirty Years' War. Sophia's brother Charles Louis was restored to the Palatinate as part of the Peace of Westphalia. Sophia married Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg in 1658. Despite his jealous temper and frequent absences, Sophia loved him, and bore him seven children who survived to adulthood. Initially a landless cadet, Ernest Augustus succeeded in having the House of Hanover raised to electoral dignity in 1692. Therefore, Sophia became Electress of Hanover, the title by which she is best remembered. A patron of the arts, Sophia commissioned the palace and gardens of Herrenhausen and sponsored philosophers, such as Gottfried Leibniz and John Toland.